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Biochemistry 5th ed - Jeremy M. Berg, John L. Tymoczko, Lubert Stryer

Contents


I. The Molecular Design of Life
1. Prelude: Biochemistry and the Genomic Revolution
1.1. DNA Illustrates the Relation between Form and Function
1.2. Biochemical Unity Underlies Biological Diversity
1.3. Chemical Bonds in Biochemistry
1.4. Biochemistry and Human Biology
Appendix: Depicting Molecular Structures

2. Biochemical Evolution
2.1. Key Organic Molecules Are Used by Living Systems
2.2. Evolution Requires Reproduction, Variation, and Selective Pressure
2.3. Energy Transformations Are Necessary to Sustain Living Systems
2.4. Cells Can Respond to Changes in Their Environments
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
3. Protein Structure and Function
3.1. Proteins Are Built from a Repertoire of 20 Amino Acids
3.2. Primary Structure: Amino Acids Are Linked by Peptide Bonds to Form Polypeptide
Chains
3.3. Secondary Structure: Polypeptide Chains Can Fold Into Regular Structures Such as the
Alpha Helix, the Beta Sheet, and Turns and Loops
3.4. Tertiary Structure: Water-Soluble Proteins Fold Into Compact Structures with Nonpolar
Cores
3.5. Quaternary Structure: Polypeptide Chains Can Assemble Into Multisubunit Structures
3.6. The Amino Acid Sequence of a Protein Determines Its Three-Dimensional Structure
Summary
Appendix: Acid-Base Concepts
Problems
Selected Readings
4. Exploring Proteins
4.1. The Purification of Proteins Is an Essential First Step in Understanding Their Function
4.2. Amino Acid Sequences Can Be Determined by Automated Edman Degradation
4.3. Immunology Provides Important Techniques with Which to Investigate Proteins
4.4. Peptides Can Be Synthesized by Automated Solid-Phase Methods
4.5. Three-Dimensional Protein Structure Can Be Determined by NMR Spectroscopy and XRay
Crystallography
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
5. DNA, RNA, and the Flow of Genetic Information
5.1. A Nucleic Acid Consists of Four Kinds of Bases Linked to a Sugar-Phosphate Backbone
5.2. A Pair of Nucleic Acid Chains with Complementary Sequences Can Form a Double-
Helical Structure
5.3. DNA Is Replicated by Polymerases that Take Instructions from Templates
5.4. Gene Expression Is the Transformation of DNA Information Into Functional Molecules
5.5. Amino Acids Are Encoded by Groups of Three Bases Starting from a Fixed Point
5.6. Most Eukaryotic Genes Are Mosaics of Introns and Exons
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
6. Exploring Genes
6.1. The Basic Tools of Gene Exploration
6.2. Recombinant DNA Technology Has Revolutionized All Aspects of Biology
6.3. Manipulating the Genes of Eukaryotes
6.4. Novel Proteins Can Be Engineered by Site-Specific Mutagenesis
Summary
Problems
Selected Reading
7. Exploring Evolution
7.1. Homologs Are Descended from a Common Ancestor
7.2. Statistical Analysis of Sequence Alignments Can Detect Homology
7.3. Examination of Three-Dimensional Structure Enhances Our Understanding of
Evolutionary Relationships
7.4. Evolutionary Trees Can Be Constructed on the Basis of Sequence Information
7.5. Modern Techniques Make the Experimental Exploration of Evolution Possible
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
8. Enzymes: Basic Concepts and Kinetics
8.1. Enzymes Are Powerful and Highly Specific Catalysts
8.2. Free Energy Is a Useful Thermodynamic Function for Understanding Enzymes
8.3. Enzymes Accelerate Reactions by Facilitating the Formation of the Transition State
8.4. The Michaelis-Menten Model Accounts for the Kinetic Properties of Many Enzymes
8.5. Enzymes Can Be Inhibited by Specific Molecules
8.6. Vitamins Are Often Precursors to Coenzymes
Summary
Appendix: Vmax and KM Can Be Determined by Double-Reciprocal Plots
Problems
Selected Readings
9. Catalytic Strategies
9.1. Proteases: Facilitating a Difficult Reaction
9.2. Making a Fast Reaction Faster: Carbonic Anhydrases
9.3. Restriction Enzymes: Performing Highly Specific DNA-Cleavage Reactions
9.4. Nucleoside Monophosphate Kinases: Catalyzing Phosphoryl Group Exchange between
Nucleotides Without Promoting Hydrolysis
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
10. Regulatory Strategies: Enzymes and Hemoglobin
10.1. Aspartate Transcarbamoylase Is Allosterically Inhibited by the End Product of Its
Pathway
10.2. Hemoglobin Transports Oxygen Efficiently by Binding Oxygen Cooperatively
10.3. Isozymes Provide a Means of Regulation Specific to Distinct Tissues and
Developmental Stages
10.4. Covalent Modification Is a Means of Regulating Enzyme Activity
10.5. Many Enzymes Are Activated by Specific Proteolytic Cleavage
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
11. Carbohydrates
11.1. Monosaccharides Are Aldehydes or Ketones with Multiple Hydroxyl Groups
11.2. Complex Carbohydrates Are Formed by Linkage of Monosaccharides
11.3. Carbohydrates Can Be Attached to Proteins to Form Glycoproteins
11.4. Lectins Are Specific Carbohydrate-Binding Proteins
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
12. Lipids and Cell Membranes
12.1. Many Common Features Underlie the Diversity of Biological Membranes
12.2. Fatty Acids Are Key Constituents of Lipids
12.3. There Are Three Common Types of Membrane Lipids
12.4. Phospholipids and Glycolipids Readily Form Bimolecular Sheets in Aqueous Media
12.5. Proteins Carry Out Most Membrane Processes
12.6. Lipids and Many Membrane Proteins Diffuse Rapidly in the Plane of the Membrane
12.7. Eukaryotic Cells Contain Compartments Bounded by Internal Membranes
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
13. Membrane Channels and Pumps
13.1. The Transport of Molecules Across a Membrane May Be Active or Passive
13.2. A Family of Membrane Proteins Uses ATP Hydrolysis to Pump Ions Across
Membranes
13.3. Multidrug Resistance and Cystic Fibrosis Highlight a Family of Membrane Proteins
with ATP-Binding Cassette Domains
13.4. Secondary Transporters Use One Concentration Gradient to Power the Formation of
Another
13.5. Specific Channels Can Rapidly Transport Ions Across Membranes
13.6. Gap Junctions Allow Ions and Small Molecules to Flow between Communicating Cells
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
II. Transducing and Storing Energy
14. Metabolism: Basic Concepts and Design
14.1. Metabolism Is Composed of Many Coupled, Interconnecting Reactions
14.2. The Oxidation of Carbon Fuels Is an Important Source of Cellular Energy
14.3. Metabolic Pathways Contain Many Recurring Motifs
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
15. Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism
15.1. Seven-Transmembrane-Helix Receptors Change Conformation in Response to Ligand
Binding and Activate G Proteins
15.2. The Hydrolysis of Phosphatidyl Inositol Bisphosphate by Phospholipase C Generates
Two Messengers
15.3. Calcium Ion Is a Ubiquitous Cytosolic Messenger
15.4. Some Receptors Dimerize in Response to Ligand Binding and Signal by Crossphosphorylation
15.5. Defects in Signaling Pathways Can Lead to Cancer and Other Diseases
15.6. Recurring Features of Signal-Transduction Pathways Reveal Evolutionary Relationships
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
16. Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis
16.1. Glycolysis Is an Energy-Conversion Pathway in Many Organisms
16.2. The Glycolytic Pathway Is Tightly Controlled
16.3. Glucose Can Be Synthesized from Noncarbohydrate Precursors
16.4. Gluconeogenesis and Glycolysis Are Reciprocally Regulated
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
17. The Citric Acid Cycle
17.1. The Citric Acid Cycle Oxidizes Two-Carbon Units
17.2. Entry to the Citric Acid Cycle and Metabolism Through It Are Controlled
17.3. The Citric Acid Cycle Is a Source of Biosynthetic Precursors
17.4. The Glyoxylate Cycle Enables Plants and Bacteria to Grow on Acetate
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
18. Oxidative Phosphorylation
18.1. Oxidative Phosphorylation in Eukaryotes Takes Place in Mitochondria
18.2. Oxidative Phosphorylation Depends on Electron Transfer
18.3. The Respiratory Chain Consists of Four Complexes: Three Proton Pumps and a
Physical Link to the Citric Acid Cycle
18.4. A Proton Gradient Powers the Synthesis of ATP
18.5. Many Shuttles Allow Movement Across the Mitochondrial Membranes
18.6. The Regulation of Cellular Respiration Is Governed Primarily by the Need for ATP
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
19. The Light Reactions of Photosynthesis
19.1. Photosynthesis Takes Place in Chloroplasts
19.2. Light Absorption by Chlorophyll Induces Electron Transfer
19.3. Two Photosystems Generate a Proton Gradient and NADPH in Oxygenic
Photosynthesis
19.4. A Proton Gradient Across the Thylakoid Membrane Drives ATP Synthesis
19.5. Accessory Pigments Funnel Energy Into Reaction Centers
19.6. The Ability to Convert Light Into Chemical Energy Is Ancient
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
20. The Calvin Cycle and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway
20.1. The Calvin Cycle Synthesizes Hexoses from Carbon Dioxide and Water
20.2. The Activity of the Calvin Cycle Depends on Environmental Conditions
20.3 the Pentose Phosphate Pathway Generates NADPH and Synthesizes Five-Carbon Sugars
20.4. The Metabolism of Glucose 6-Phosphate by the Pentose Phosphate Pathway Is
Coordinated with Glycolysis
20.5. Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Plays a Key Role in Protection Against Reactive
Oxygen Species
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
21. Glycogen Metabolism
21.1. Glycogen Breakdown Requires the Interplay of Several Enzymes
21.2. Phosphorylase Is Regulated by Allosteric Interactions and Reversible Phosphorylation
21.3. Epinephrine and Glucagon Signal the Need for Glycogen Breakdown
21.4. Glycogen Is Synthesized and Degraded by Different Pathways
21.5. Glycogen Breakdown and Synthesis Are Reciprocally Regulated
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
22. Fatty Acid Metabolism
22.1. Triacylglycerols Are Highly Concentrated Energy Stores
22.2. The Utilization of Fatty Acids as Fuel Requires Three Stages of Processing
22.3. Certain Fatty Acids Require Additional Steps for Degradation
22.4. Fatty Acids Are Synthesized and Degraded by Different Pathways
22.5. Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Plays a Key Role in Controlling Fatty Acid
Metabolism
22.6. Elongation and Unsaturation of Fatty Acids Are Accomplished by Accessory Enzyme
Systems
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
23. Protein Turnover and Amino Acid Catabolism
23.1. Proteins Are Degraded to Amino Acids
23.2. Protein Turnover Is Tightly Regulated
23.3. The First Step in Amino Acid Degradation Is the Removal of Nitrogen
23.4. Ammonium Ion Is Converted Into Urea in Most Terrestrial Vertebrates
23.5. Carbon Atoms of Degraded Amino Acids Emerge as Major Metabolic Intermediates
23.6. Inborn Errors of Metabolism Can Disrupt Amino Acid Degradation
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
III. Synthesizing the Molecules of Life
24. The Biosynthesis of Amino Acids
24.1. Nitrogen Fixation: Microorganisms Use ATP and a Powerful Reductant to Reduce
Atmospheric Nitrogen to Ammonia
24.2. Amino Acids Are Made from Intermediates of the Citric Acid Cycle and Other Major
Pathways
24.3. Amino Acid Biosynthesis Is Regulated by Feedback Inhibition
24.4. Amino Acids Are Precursors of Many Biomolecules
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
25. Nucleotide Biosynthesis
25.1. In de Novo Synthesis, the Pyrimidine Ring Is Assembled from Bicarbonate, Aspartate,
and Glutamine
25.2. Purine Bases Can Be Synthesized de Novo or Recycled by Salvage Pathways
25.3. Deoxyribonucleotides Synthesized by the Reduction of Ribonucleotides Through a
Radical Mechanism
25.4. Key Steps in Nucleotide Biosynthesis Are Regulated by Feedback Inhibition
25.5. NAD+, FAD, and Coenzyme A Are Formed from ATP
25.6. Disruptions in Nucleotide Metabolism Can Cause Pathological Conditions
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
26. The Biosynthesis of Membrane Lipids and Steroids
26.1. Phosphatidate Is a Common Intermediate in the Synthesis of Phospholipids and
Triacylglycerols
26.2. Cholesterol Is Synthesized from Acetyl Coenzyme A in Three Stages
26.3. The Complex Regulation of Cholesterol Biosynthesis Takes Place at Several Levels
26.4. Important Derivatives of Cholesterol Include Bile Salts and Steroid Hormones
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
27. DNA Replication, Recombination, and Repair
27.1. DNA Can Assume a Variety of Structural Forms
27.2. DNA Polymerases Require a Template and a Primer
27.3. Double-Stranded DNA Can Wrap Around Itself to Form Supercoiled Structures
27.4. DNA Replication of Both Strands Proceeds Rapidly from Specific Start Sites
27.5. Double-Stranded DNA Molecules with Similar Sequences Sometimes Recombine
27.6. Mutations Involve Changes in the Base Sequence of DNA
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
28. RNA Synthesis and Splicing
28.1. Transcription Is Catalyzed by RNA Polymerase
28.2. Eukaryotic Transcription and Translation Are Separated in Space and Time
28.3. The Transcription Products of All Three Eukaryotic Polymerases Are Processed
28.4. The Discovery of Catalytic RNA Was Revealing in Regard to Both Mechanism and
Evolution
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
29. Protein Synthesis
29.1. Protein Synthesis Requires the Translation of Nucleotide Sequences Into Amino Acid
Sequences
29.2. Aminoacyl-Transfer RNA Synthetases Read the Genetic Code
29.3. A Ribosome Is a Ribonucleoprotein Particle (70S) Made of a Small (30S) and a Large
(50S) Subunit
29.4. Protein Factors Play Key Roles in Protein Synthesis
29.5. Eukaryotic Protein Synthesis Differs from Prokaryotic Protein Synthesis Primarily in
Translation Initiation
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
30. The Integration of Metabolism
30.1. Metabolism Consist of Highly Interconnected Pathways
30.2. Each Organ Has a Unique Metabolic Profile
30.3. Food Intake and Starvation Induce Metabolic Changes
30.4. Fuel Choice During Exercise Is Determined by Intensity and Duration of Activity
30.5. Ethanol Alters Energy Metabolism in the Liver
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
31. The Control of Gene Expression
31.1. Prokaryotic DNA-Binding Proteins Bind Specifically to Regulatory Sites in Operons
31.2. The Greater Complexity of Eukaryotic Genomes Requires Elaborate Mechanisms for
Gene Regulation
31.3. Transcriptional Activation and Repression Are Mediated by Protein-Protein Interactions
31.4. Gene Expression Can Be Controlled at Posttranscriptional Levels
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
IV. Responding to Environmental Changes
32. Sensory Systems
32.1. A Wide Variety of Organic Compounds Are Detected by Olfaction
32.2. Taste Is a Combination of Senses that Function by Different Mechanisms
32.3. Photoreceptor Molecules in the Eye Detect Visible Light
32.4. Hearing Depends on the Speedy Detection of Mechanical Stimuli
32.5. Touch Includes the Sensing of Pressure, Temperature, and Other Factors
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
33. The Immune System
33.1. Antibodies Possess Distinct Antigen-Binding and Effector Units
33.2. The Immunoglobulin Fold Consists of a Beta-Sandwich Framework with Hypervariable
Loops
33.3. Antibodies Bind Specific Molecules Through Their Hypervariable Loops
33.4. Diversity Is Generated by Gene Rearrangements
33.5. Major-Histocompatibility-Complex Proteins Present Peptide Antigens on Cell Surfaces
for Recognition by T-Cell Receptors
33.6. Immune Responses Against Self-Antigens Are Suppressed
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
34. Molecular Motors
34.1. Most Molecular-Motor Proteins Are Members of the P-Loop NTPase Superfamily
34.2. Myosins Move Along Actin Filaments
34.3. Kinesin and Dynein Move Along Microtubules
34.4. A Rotary Motor Drives Bacterial Motion
Summary
Problems
Selected Readings
Appendix A: Physical Constants and Conversion of Units
Appendix B: Acidity Constants
Appendix C: Standard Bond Lengths
Glossary of Compounds
Answers to Problems
Common Abbreviations in Biochemistry

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