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Color Atlas of Neuroscience Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology - Ben Greenstein, Adam Greenstein

Contents of the book


Anatomy . . . 2
Meninges and Tracts . . . 2
Laminae and Nuclei of the Spinal Cord
Gray Matter . . . 4
Ventral View of Brain Stem . . . 6
Dorsal View of Brain Stem . . . 8
Transverse Section of Medulla Oblongata. . . 10
Transverse Section of Medulla OblongataII . . . 12
Transverse Section of Pons . . . 14
The Fourth Ventricle . . . 16
The Cerebellum I . . . 18
The Cerebellum II: Cellular and Lobular Arrangement . . . 20



The Midbrain . . . 22
The Cerebrum . . . 24
The Diencephalon . . . 26
Thalamic Nuclei . . . 28
Thalamic Nuclei: Projections to Cerebral Cortex . . . 30
Cerebral Cortex: Surface Features . . . 32
Cerebral Hemispheres: Internal Structures. . . 34
Tracts of Cerebral Hemispheres . . . 36
Cerebral Hemispheres: Cellular Architecture . . . 38
Blood Supply and Venous Drainage of Spinal Cord . . . 40
Brain Vascularization: Arterial Supply . . . 42
Venous Drainage of the Brain . . . 44
Ventricular System of the Brain . . . 46
Flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid . . . 48
Cerebrospinal Fluid Composition, Secretion, and Pathology . . . 50
Blood−Brain Barriers . . . 52
Embryology . . . 54
Summary of Brain Development . . . 54
Development of the Peripheral Nervous System . . . 56
The Neural Plate and Neural Tube . . . 58
Development of the Spinal Cord . . . 60
Development of the Rhombencephalon: Cranial Nerves . . . 62
Development of the Rhombencephalon: Cerebellum and Ventricular System . . . 64
Development of the Mesencephalon . . .66
The Diencephalon and Pituitary Gland . . . 68
The Telencephalon . . . 70
Cellular Structures . . . 72
The Neuron . . . 72
Neuronal Cell Types . . . 74
Neuroglia (Glia) . . . 76
Electrical Properties of Nerves I . . . 78
Electrical Properties of Nerve II: Generation of the Membrane Potential . . . 80
Ion Channels . . . 82
Voltage-gated Sodium Channel . . . 84
The Na+/K+ ATPase Pump . . . 86
The Action Potential . . . 88
Conduction of the Action Potential . . . 90
Communication between Neurons: Electrical Synapses . . . 92
The Electrical Gap Junction . . . 94
Chemical Synapses . . . 96
The Neuromuscular Junction . . . 98
Neuromuscular Junction II . . . 100

The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor . . . 102
The End Plate Potential . . . 104
GABA Receptors . . . 106
The Glutamate Receptor . . . 108
Catecholamine Neurotransmitters. . . 110
GABA and Glutamate: Synthesis and Role . . . 112
Catecholamine Pathways in CNS . . . 114
5-Hydroxytryptamine . . . 116
Metabolic Disposition of Catecholamines. . . 118
Metabolic Disposition of Dopamine and 5-HT . . . 120
Cholinergic Pathways and Muscarinic Receptors . . . 122
Central Synapses I: The Stretch Reflex . . . 124
Central synapses II: Types of Synapse . . . 126
Central synapses III: Synaptic Integration . . . 128
Synaptic Plasticity . . . 130
Somatosensory Aspects . . . 132
Sensory Information . . . 132
Mechanoreceptor Activation . . . 134
Cutaneous Mechanoreceptors . . . 136
Thermoreceptor Action . . . 138
Receptive Fields . . . 140
Proprioceptors I: The Muscle Spindle . . . 142
Proprioceptors II: The Muscle Spindle - Function . . . 144
Proprioceptors III: The Golgi Tendon Organ . . . 146
Proprioceptors IV: The Stretch Reflex . . . 148
Sensory Fibers and Dorsal Roots . . . 150
Segmental Organization of Spinal Cord . . . 152
Sensory Tracts I: Spinal Cord Organization . . . 156
Posterior (Dorsal) Column Medial Lemniscus Pathway . . . 158
Spinothalamic Pathway . . . 160
Spinocerebellar Tracts . . . 162
Somatosensory Tracts: Summary of Ascending Pathways . . . 164
Nociception I: Pain Pathways and Components . . . 166
Nociception II: Afferent Inputs to the Dorsal Horn and Ascending Pathways. . . 168
Nociception III: Descending Brain Stem Pathways Affecting Transmission. . . 170
Nociception IV: Visceral Afferents . . . 172
Nociception V: Referred Cardiac Pain . . . 174
The Somatosensory Cortex . . . 176
Motor System . . . 178
The Motor Cortex . . . 178
Origin of the Pyramidal Tract . . . 180
Descending Motor Tracts and Cranial Nerve Nuclei . . . 182
Extrapyramidal Motor Pathways . . . 184
Components of the Basal Ganglia . . . 186
Connections of the Basal Ganglia . . . 188
Basal Ganglia Neurotransmitters . . . 190
Basal Ganglia Neurotransmitters and Receptors . . . 192
Basal Ganglia Disease: Loss of Nigrostriatal Pathway . . . 194
Basal Ganglia Lesions in Striatum and Subthalamic Nucleus . . . 196
Functional Organization of the Cerebellum . . . 198
The Vestibulocerebellar Module . . . 200
The Spinocerebellar Module . . . 202
The Pontocerebellar Module . . . 204
Control of Posture . . . 206

The Brain Stem . . . 208
The Reticular Formation . . . 208
Afferent Connections to the Reticular Formation . . . 210
Efferent Connections of the Reticular Formation . . . 212
The Reticular Activating System . . . 214
Sleep and The Reticular Formation . . . 216
The Cranial Nerves . . . 218
The Cranial Nerve Nuclei . . . 220
Trigeminal Innervation . . . 222
Trigeminal Function and Pathology . . . 224
The Facial Nerve . . . 226
The Accessory, Hypoglossal, and Vagus Nerves . . . 228
The Glossopharyngeal Nerve . . . 230
Cranial Nerve Paralysis . . . 232
Oculomotor Nuclei and Nerves . . . 234
Control of Extraocular Muscles . . . 236
The Autonomic Nervous System . . . 238
Layout of the Autonomic Nervous System . . . 238
Autonomic Nervous System: Parasympathetic Division . . . 240
Autonomic Nervous System: Sympathetic Division . . . 242
Autonomic Nervous System: Effects . . . 244
Autonomic Nervous System: Agonists and Antagonists . . . 246
The Special Senses . . . 248
The Gustatory System . . . 248
The Olfactory System Pathways . . . 250
Olfactory System Organization . . . 252
The Cochlea and Organ of Corti . . . 254
The Nature of Sound . . . 256
Sound and the Cochlea I . . . 258
Sound and the Cochlea II . . . 260
Ascending Auditory Pathways . . . 262
Auditory Cortical Areas and Descending Auditory Pathways . . . 264
Localization of Sound . . . 266
The Vestibular Apparatus . . . 268
Orientation of Hair Cells . . . 270
Structure of the Eye . . . 272
Retina, Rods, and Cones . . . 274
Photoreceptors and Light . . . 276
Photoreceptors and Retinal Interneurons. . . 278
Retinal Ganglion Cells . . . 280
Visual Fields and Pathways I . . . 282
Visual Fields and Pathways II . . . 284
Visual Cortex I . . . 286
Visual Cortex II . . . 288
Visual Processing and Color Vision . . . 290
The Hypothalamus . . . 292
The Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis . . . 292
Connections of the Hypothalamus. . . 294
Neuroendocrine Axis . . . 296
Feedback Control . . . 298
Control of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Release . . . 300
Control of Release of Luteinizing and Follicle-stimulating Hormones . . . 302
Control of Growth Hormone Release . . . 304
Control of Thyroid Hormone Release . . . 306
Parvicellular and Magnicellular Systems. . . 308
Control of Oxytocin Release . . . 310
Control of Vasopressin Secretion . . . 312
Thermoregulation . . . 314

The Limbic System . . . 316
Limbic System 1: Introduction . . . 316
The Hippocampus . . . 318
The Septal Nuclei . . . 320
The Amygdaloid Complex . . . 322
Functions of the Amygdaloid Complex . . . 324
The Cingulate Gyrus . . . 326
Limbic System and Stress . . . 328
Neuronal Mechanisms for Learning and Memory . . . 330
Long-term Potentiation in the Hippocampus . . . 332
The Limbic System in Health and Disease . . . 334
The Higher Brain Centers . . . 336
Brodmann’s Maps of the Cerebral Cortex . . . 336
Surface Features of the Cerebral Cortex . . . 338
Cortical Association Areas . . . 340
Brain Laterality and Language Centers . . . 342
Neural Processing of Language . . . 344
Language Disorders . . . 346
Learning: Classical Conditioning . . . 348
Learning and Instrumental Conditioning . . . 350
Parietal Association Areas . . . 352
Prefrontal Association Cortex . . . 354
Temporal Association Cortex . . . 356
Theories of Consciousness . . . 358
Corpus Callosum and ‘Split Brain’ . . . 360
Epilepsy . . . 362
Drugs for Epilepsy . . . 364
Schizophrenia . . . 366
Drugs Used for Schizophrenia . . . 368
Parkinson’s Disease . . . 370
Affective (Mood) Disorders . . . 372
Antidepressants . . . 374
Brain Aging and Dementia . . . 376
!-Amyloid Precursor Protein in Alzheimer’s Disease . . . 378
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies . . . 380
Damage and Repair . . . 382
Axonal Damage . . . 384
Axonal Injury and Nerve Growth Factor . . . 384
Neural Stem Cells, Gene Therapy, and Neural Repair . . . 386
Literature . . . 389
Glossary of Terms . . . 393
Index . . . 419

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