Latest Posts

Research Techniques in Animal Ecology - Luigi Boitani

Contents


Chapter 1: Hypothesis Testing in Ecology
Charles J. Krebs 1
Some Definitions 1
What Is a Hypothesis? 3
Hypotheses and Models 4
Hypotheses and Paradigms 6
Statistical Hypotheses 8
Hypotheses and Prediction 10
Acknowledgments 12
Literature Cited 12
Chapter 2: A Critical Review of the Effects of Marking on the
Biology of Vertebrates
Dennis L. Murray and Mark R. Fuller 15



Review of the Literature 16
Which Markers to Use? 17
Effects of Markers Among Taxa 17
Critique of Marker Evaluation Studies 35
Review of Current Guidance Available for Choosing Markers 37
Critique of Guidelines Available for Choosing Markers 39

Survey of Recent Ecological Studies 40
Future Approaches 42
Study Protocols and Technological Advances 43
Marker Evaluation Studies 44
Acknowledgments 46
Literature Cited 46
Chapter 3: Animal Home Ranges and Territories and Home
Range Estimators
Roger A. Powell 65
Definition of Home Range 65
Territories 70
Estimating Animals’ Home Ranges 74
Utility Distributions 75
Grids 77
Minimum Convex Polygon 79
Circle and Ellipse Approaches 80
Fourier Series 80
Harmonic Mean Distribution 81
Fractal Estimators 82
Kernel Estimators 86
Home Range Core 91
Quantifying Home Range Overlap and Territoriality 94
Static Interactions 95
Dynamic Interactions 97
Testing for Territoriality 98
Lessons 100
Acknowledgments 103
Literature Cited 103
Chapter 4: Delusions in Habitat Evaluation: Measuring Use,
Selection, and Importance
David L. Garshelis 111
Terminology 112
Methods for Evaluating Habitat Selection, Preference, and Quality 114
Use–Availability Design 114
Site Attribute Design 117
Demographic Response Design 118
Problems with Use–Availability and Site Attribute Designs 118

Defining Habitats 118
Measuring Habitat Use 120
Measuring Habitat Availability 122
Assessing Habitat Selection: Fatal Flaw 1 127
Inferring Habitat Quality: Fatal Flaw 2 139
Advantages and Problems of the Demographic Response Design 144
Applications and Recommendations 147
Acknowledgments 153
Literature Cited 153
Chapter 5: Investigating Food Habits of Terrestrial Vertebrates
John A. Litvaitis 165
Conventional Approaches and Their Limitations 166
Direct Observation 166
Lead Animals 167
Feeding Site Surveys 167
Exclosures 170
Postingestion Samples 170
Evaluating the Importance of Specific Foods and Prey 175
Use, Selection, or Preference? 175
Availability Versus Abundance 175
Cafeteria Experiments 176
Innovations 176
Improvements on Lead Animal Studies 176
Use of Isotope Ratios 177
Experimental Manipulations 177
The Role of Foraging Theory in Understanding Food Habits 179
Lessons 181
Sample Resolution and Information Obtained 181
Improving Sample Resolution and Information Content 182
Literature Cited 183
Chapter 6: Detecting Stability and Causes of Change in
Population Density
Joseph S. Elkinton 191
Detection of Density Dependence 193
Analysis of Time Series of Density 193
Analysis of Data on Mortality or Survival 196
Detection of Delayed Density Dependence 199

Detection of Causes of Population Change 201
Key Factor Analysis 201
Experimental Manipulation 205
Conclusions 208
Literature Cited 209
Chapter 7: Monitoring Populations
James P. Gibbs 213
Index–Abundance Relationships 214
Types of Indices 214
Index–Abundance Functions 215
Variability of Index–Abundance Functions 217
Improving Index Surveys 220
Spatial Aspects of Measuring Changes in Indices 221
Monitoring Indices Over Time 222
Power Estimation for Monitoring Programs 223
Variability of Indices of Animal Abundance 224
Sampling Requirements for Robust Monitoring Programs 227
Setting Objectives for a Monitoring Program 228
Conclusions 229
Acknowledgments 232
Appendix 7.1 233
Literature Cited 247
Chapter 8: Modeling Predator–Prey Dynamics
Mark S. Boyce 253
Modeling Approaches for Predator–Prey Systems 254
Noninteractive Models 255
True Predator–Prey Models 260
Stochastic Models 269
Autoregressive Models 270
Fitting the Model to Data 273
Bayesian Statistics 273
Best Guess Followed by Adaptive Management 273
Choosing a Good Model 275
How Much Detail? 275
Model Validation 277
Recommendations 279
Remember the Audience 279

Conclusion 281
Acknowledgments 281
Literature Cited 282
Chapter 9: Population Viability Analysis: Data Requirements and
Essential Analyses
Gary C. White 288
Qualitative Observations About Population Persistence 290
Generalities 290
Contradictions 292
Sources of Variation Affecting Population Persistence 293
No Variation 293
Stochastic Variation 293
Demographic Variation 295
Temporal Variation 297
Spatial Variation 300
Individual Variation 300
Process Variation 303
Components of a PVA 303
Direct Estimation of Variance Components 305
Indirect Estimation of Variance Components 312
Bootstrap Approach 313
Basic Population Model and Density Dependence 314
Incorporation of Parameter Uncertainty into Persistence Estimates 319
Discussion 322
Conclusion 325
Literature Cited 327
Chapter 10: Measuring the Dynamics of Mammalian Societies:
An Ecologist’s Guide to Ethological Methods
David W. Macdonald, Paul D. Stewart, Pavel Stopka,
and Nobuyuki Yamaguchi 332
Social Dynamics 332
Context 334
Why Study Social Dynamics? 335
Evolution of Sociality 335
Conservation Applications 335
Understanding Ourselves 336
How to Describe Social Dynamics 337

Action, Interaction, and Relationships 337
Social Networks 338
Social Structure, from Surface to Deep 339
Behavioral Parameters 340
The Bout 340
Stationarity 343
The Ethogram 343
Beware Teleology 345
Classifications of Behavioral Interactions 347
Methods for Behavioral Measurement 362
Identifying the Individual 362
Sampling and Recording Rules 364
Ad Libitum Sampling 365
Focal Sampling 365
Time Sampling 366
Techniques for Behavioral Measurement 368
Analysis of Observational Data 369
Statistical Rationality 370
Matrix Facilities: Analyzing Sequential Data 371
Lag Sequential and Nested Analysis 374
Searching for a Behavioral Pattern (Markov Chain) 375
Predictability of Behavior 376
Sequences Through the Mist 378
Acknowledgments 380
Literature Cited 380
Chapter 11: Modeling Species Distribution with GIS
Fabio Corsi, Jan de Leeuw, and Andrew K. Skidmore 389
Terminology 391
Habitat Definitions and Use 392
General Structure of GIS-Based Models 396
Literature Review 401
Modeling Issues 403
Clear Objectives 403
Assumptions 405
Spatial and Temporal Scale 408
Data Availability 412
Validation and Accuracy Assessment 413

Discussion 422
Conclusions 424
Acknowledgments 425
Notes 425
Literature Cited 426

Download book
Tags:

About author

Mahesh Loves to write about admission process in US and help prospective students.

0 comments

Leave a Reply

Related Posts with Thumbnails