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Microbiology Demystified - Tom Betsy, James Keogh

Contents


Introduction xiii
Acknowledgments xix
CHAPTER 1 The World of the Microorganism 1
Types of Microorganisms 2
What Is a Microorganism? 4
What’s in a Name: Naming and Classifying 5
How Small Is a Microorganism? 7
Your Body Fights Back 7
History of the Microscope 9
How Do Organisms Appear? 10
Germ Theory 12
Vaccination 15
Killing the Microorganism 16
Quiz 19

CHAPTER 2 The Chemical Elements of Microorganisms 23
Everything Matters 24
Chemical Elements and the Atom 24
A Dinner Table of Elements:
The Periodic Table 27
The Glowing Tale of Isotopes 27
Around They Go: Electronic Configuration 29
Before James There Was Bond . . .
Chemical Bond 29
Decoding Chemical Shorthand 31

I Just Want to See Your Reaction 31
Molarity: Hey, There’s a Mole Amongst Us 36
An Unlikely Pair: Inorganic and Organic 37
The Blueprint of Protein Synthesis 42
The Power House: ATP 44
Quiz 44
CHAPTER 3 Observing Microorganisms 47
Size Is a Matter of Metrics 47
Here’s Looking at You 51
What Big Eyes You Have: Magnification 52
The Microscope 54
Preparing Specimens 60
Quiz 64
CHAPTER 4 Prokaryotic Cells and Eukaryotic Cells 67
Prokaryotic Cells 68
Eukaryotic Cells 78
Quiz 83
CHAPTER 5 The Chemical Metabolism 87
Riding the Metabolism Cycle 87
Catabolic and Anabolic: The Only Reactions
You Need 88
A Little Give and Take: Oxidation-Reduction 88
Making Power: ATP Production 89
What’s Your Name: Naming and
Classifying Enzymes 89
Brewing Up Protein 90
The Magic of Enzymes: Enzyme Activities 90
The Krebs Cycle 94
Fermentation 97
Other Catabolic Pathways 97
Photosynthesis 98
Quiz 100

CHAPTER 6 Microbial Growth and Controlling
Microbial Growth 103
Chemical Requirements for Microbial
Growth 104
Culture Media 105
Phases of Growth 109
Measurements of Microbial Growth 110
Establishing Bacterial Numbers
by Indirect Methods 111
Controlling Microbial Growth 112
Microbial Death Rates 113
Action of Antimicrobial Agents 113
Chemical Agents That Control Microbial
Growth 114
Quiz 116
CHAPTER 7 Microbial Genetics 119
Genetics 120
DNA Replication: Take My Genes, Please! 120
Protein Synthesis 123
Controlling Genes: You’re Under My Spell 124
Mutations: Not a Pretty Copy 125
Quiz 127
CHAPTER 8 Recombinant DNA Technology 131
Genetic Engineering: Designer Genes 132
Gene Therapy: Makes You Feel Better 134
DNA Fingerprinting: Gotcha 134
Recombinant DNA Technology and Society:
Too Much of a Good Thing 136
Quiz 137
CHAPTER 9 Classification of Microorganisms 139
Taxonomy: Nothing to Do with the IRS 139
Nomenclature of Taxonomy: Name Calling 140

Classification: All Natural 146
Quiz 148
CHAPTER 10 The Prokaryotes: Domains Archaea and
Bacteria 151
Archaea 152
Aerobic/Microaerophilic, Motile,
Helical/Vibroid, Gram-Negative Bacteria 154
Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci 155
Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods 156
Anaerobic Gram-Negative Cocci and Rods 158
Rickettsias and Chlamydias 158
Mycoplamas 159
Gram-Positive Cocci 160
Endospore-Forming Gram-Positive Rods
and Cocci 162
Regular Nonsporing Gram-Positive Rods 163
Irregular Nonsporing Gram-Positive Rods 164
Mycobacteria 164
Nocardia Forms 165
Quiz 165
CHAPTER 11 The Eukaryotes: Fungi, Algae, Protozoa,
and Helminths 167
Fungi 168
Algae 171
Protozoa 174
Helminths 178
Quiz 182
CHAPTER 12 Viruses, Viroids, and Prions 185
Viruses 185
Viroids 192
Prions 193
Quiz 193

CHAPTER 13 Epidemiology and Disease 197
What Is Epidemiology? 197
Classification of Disease 198
Infection Sites 199
Disease Transmission 201
The Development of Disease 203
Epidemiological Studies 204
Control of Communicable Diseases 205
Nosocomial Infections 206
Who Is Susceptible? 206
Prevention and Control of Nosocomial
Infections 207
Quiz 207
CHAPTER 14 Immunity 211
What Is Immunity? 211
Types of Immunity 213
A Closer Look at Antigens 214
A Closer Look at Binding 214
B Cells 216
Lasting Immunity 218
Antibodies Used for Diagnosing Diseases 218
Chemical Messengers 218
T Cells 219
Macrophages and Natural Killer Cells 220
Quiz 221
CHAPTER 15 Vaccines and Diagnosing Diseases 223
What Is a Vaccine? 223
Types of Vaccines 224
Developing a Vaccine 225
Diagnosing Diseases 226
Quiz 228

CHAPTER 16 Antimicrobial Drugs 231
Chemotherapeutic Agents: The Silver Bullet 231
Antimicrobial Activity: Who to Attack? 233
The Attack Plan 235
Exploring Antimicrobial Drugs 237
Chemotherapy Tests 246
Quiz 247
Final Exam 249

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