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From Biotechnology to Genomes The Meaning of the Double Helix - Philippe Goujon


Introduction: The Essence of Life and the Labyrinth of
the Genome
1 The Invention of Biotechnology
1.1 The Origins of Biotechnology
1.2 The Emergence of a New Concept of Life
1.3 From Zymotechnology to Biotechnology
1.4 The Engineering of Nature -Towards thc Best of all
1.5 Technique, Biology and the Development of Biotechnics
1.6 The Recognition of Biotechnology by the Institutions
Possible Worlds
2 Political Interpretations of Biotechnology and the Birth of
the First Research Programs
2.1 The Example of the United States
2.2 Biotechnology in Japan: Economic Success and
Ecological Failure
2.3 Germany and the Political Aspect of Biotcchnology
2.4 The British Development of Biotechnology : Delayed
Political Reaction
2.5 Thc French Reaction
2.6 The European Community and Biotechnology -The
Emergence of the First European Biotechnology Programs

3 The Foundations of the Heralded Revolution
3.1 From the Frontiers of Genetics to the Birth of
Molecular Biology
3.2 The Secret of Life: DNA
3.3 The First sequencing of a Protein: Insulin
3.4 Techniques of DNA Sequencing
3.5 Gene Money, or the Miracles Expected of Biotechnology
3.6 The Japanese Threat and the Human Frontier
Science Program
4 Attack on the Genomes: The First Genetic and Physical Maps
4.1 The Problem of Gene Localization
4.2 Polymorphic Markers, Gene Mapping and the
Great Gene Hunt
4.3 Towards a Complete Linkage Map
4.4 Physical Genome Mapping: The Reconstruction of a
4.5 The First Physical Maps of Large Genonies
4.6 Towards a Physical Map of the Human Genome
5 The Human Genome Project and the Interiiational
Sequencing Prograins
5.1 The Ultimate Challenge: The Human Genome Project
5.2 The Department of Energy Initiative
5.3 The NIH Genome Project
5.4 HUGO, or the Difficulties of International Coordination
5.5 The Iniportance of Model Organisms
5.6 The International Dimensions of Genome Research:
The First Stirrings in other Countries
6 European Bioteclinology Stratcgy and Sequencing
the Yeast Genome
6.1 Towards a New European Research Policy for

6.2 The 1980s: An Implenientationof the 1983 Strategy?
6.3 3AP’s First Year
6.4 The Revision of the BAP Program
6.5 The Origins andNature of the Yeast Genome
6.6 Critical Discussions and the Adoption of the Yeast
Sequencing Project
Genome Sequencing Project
7 The Decryption of Life
7.1 The Structure and Organization of the European
Yeast Genome Sequencing Network
7.2 A World First -The Sequence for a Whole Eucaryote
Chromosome: Chromosome111 of the Yeast
Succhuro~~iycc~eerse visiue
7.3 The Complete Sequence of the Genome and the
Intensification of European Efforts
7.4 After the Sequence -The Challenge of Functional
7.5 Sequences, Sequences and More Sequences
7.6 From Science to Economics
8 Conclusion: The Dreams of Reason or the New Biology’s
Dangerous Liaisons
8.1 Fascination but Anxiety Concerning Progress in the
Life Sciences
8.2 Reductionism vis-u-vis the Complexity of Life
8.3 Froni Science to Ideology -The Dangers of
“The Genetic All”
8.4 The Health Excuse -A New Utopia?
8.5 Behind Gene Therapy - The Dangerous Liaisons
of the New Biology
8.6 Convenient Reductionism
8.7 The Reasons Behind an Ideology

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