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The Application of Biotechnology to Industrial Sustainability - Christian Aagaard Hansen


Contents


Chapter 1 Background and Aims  11
Introduction  11
Case studies 11
The audience 12
Sustainable development  14
Decision making 16
Chapter 2 Industrial Uses of Biotechnology  17
Renewable raw materials  17
Bioprocesses 20
Annex Bioethanol  23
Chapter 3 Alternative Techniques of Analysis  25
Looking at the whole picture 25
Life cycle assessment  27
A checklist for sustainability 30
Annex The Green Index  32
Chapter 4 Lessons from the Case Studies 35
Origins of new processes  36
Analysis and data gathering by companies  37
Decision making and decision makers 38
Chapter 5 Key Issues and Conclusions 43
Why adopt? 43
Cost benefits 44
Approach of management 45
Analytical methods  46
Environmental constraints  46
CASE STUDIES
Case Study 1 Manufacture of Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) (Hoffmann La-Roche, Germany)  51
Introduction  51
Technical description  51
Life cycle assessment  51
Process of innovation  52
Process comparisons  53
Summary and conclusions  53
Case Study 2 Production of 7-Amino-cephalosporanic Acid (Biochemie, Germany/Austria) 55
Introduction  55
Technical features of the alternative processes 55
Advantages and disadvantages  55
Description of the innovation process  56
Summary and conclusions  57
Case Study 3 Biotechnological Production of the Antibiotic Cephalexin (DSM, Netherlands)  59
Introduction  59
Technical description  59
Process comparison  60
Process of innovation  60
External and internal influencing factors  61
Summary and conclusions  62
Case Study 4 Bioprocesses for the Manufacture of Amino Acids (Tanabe, Japan)  63
Introduction  63
Use of immobilised aminoacylase 63
Cost comparison  64
Use of immobilised E coli  64
Use of immobilised E coli and immobilised Pseudomonas dacunhae 65
Summary and conclusions  65
Case Study 5 Manufacture of S-Chloropropionic Acid (Avecia, United Kingdom)  67
Introduction  67
Technical description of process  67
Advantages and disadvantages  68
History of the innovation process 68
Summary and conclusions  69
Case Study 6 Enzymatic Production of Acrylamide (Mitsubishi Rayon, Japan)  71
Introduction  71
Technical features  71
Process characteristics  72
Advantages and disadvantages  73
Environmental impact  74
Summary and conclusions  75
Annex Checklist for Sustainability of Enzymatic Processes  76
Case Study 7 Enzymatic Synthesis of Acrylic Acid (Ciba, United Kingdom) 77
Introduction  77
Technical description of process  77
Risks and benefits  78
Process of innovation  78
Summary and conclusions  80
Case Study 8 Enzyme-Catalysed Synthesis of Polyesters (Baxenden, United Kingdom)  81
Introduction  81
Technical features  81
Process selection  82
Advantages and disadvantages  82
Description of process innovation 82
Internal factors relevant to decisions  83
External factors 84
Co-operation 84
Summary and conclusions  85
Case Study 9 Polymers from Renewable Resources (Cargill Dow, United States)  87
Introduction  87
Technical description  87
History of the innovation  88
Environmental benefits and disposal options 88
Life Cycle Inventory of PLA polymers  89
Raw material production 90
Summary and conclusions  90
Case Study 10 A Vegetable Oil Degumming Enzyme (Cereol, Germany) 91
Introduction  91
Technical features of the EnzyMax process 91
Advantages of the EnzyMax process  92
Description of the process of innovation 92
Co-operation 94
Summary and conclusions  94
Case Study 11 Water Recovery in a Vegetable-processing Company (Pasfrost, Netherlands) 95
Introduction  95
Technical features  95
Technical features  96
Description of the installation 97
Operational costs  98
Summary and conclusions  98
Case Study 12 Removal of Bleach Residues in Textile Finishing (Windel, Germany)  99
Introduction  99
Technical features of the process  99
Description of analysis  100
Results  102
Summary and conclusions  103
Case Study 13 Enzymatic Pulp Bleaching Process (Leykam, Austria)  105
Introduction  105
The innovation goal: biopulping 105
The biopulping method  106
The innovation process  106
Favourable and unfavourable factors 106
Summary and conclusions  107
Case Study 14 Use of Xylanase as a Pulp Brightener (Domtar, Canada)  109
Introduction  109
Environmental issues  109
Pulping and bleaching 110
Pressures for change 110
Process history 111
Summary and conclusions  111
Annex A Status of Pulping Enzymes  112
Annex B Iogen’s Xylanase Business 113
Case Study 15 A Life Cycle Assessment on Enzyme Bleaching of Wood Pulp (ICPET, Canada)  115
Introduction  115
Objective of the study 115
Results and discussion 117
Comparison of enzyme bleaching and ECF bleaching process  117
Conclusions 117
Case Study 16 On-site Production of Xylanase (Oji Paper, Japan) 119
Introduction  119
Process innovation 119
Experience with the enzyme production operation 120
Cost benefits 120
Summary and conclusions  121
Case Study 17 A Gypsum-free Zinc Refinery (Budel Zink, Netherlands)  123
Introduction  123
Process description 124
Operational experience  125
Environmental impact  125
Case Study 18 Copper Bioleaching Technology (Billiton, South Africa)  127
Introduction  127
Technical features  127
Description of the process of innovation 130
Process selection 130
Summary and conclusions  131
Case Study 19 Renewable Fuels – Ethanol from Biomass (Iogen, Canada) 133
Introduction  133
History  133
Process 134
Project 134
Economics  135
Discussion 135
Case Study 20 The Application of LCA Software to Bioethanol Fuel (ICPET, Canada) 137
Introduction  137
Objective 137
Steam generation 138
Petrol manufacturing 138
Results and conclusions 139
Interpretation of results  140
Evaluation  140
Case Study 21 Use of Enzymes in Oil-well Completion (M-I, BP Exploration, United Kingdom)  143
Introduction  143
Conventional process 143
Biotechnological process  144
Advantages and disadvantages  145
Practical performance 146

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