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The Biotechnology of Ethanol - M Roher


Contents


1 Starch Containing Raw Materials 7
1.1 Potatoes 7
1.2 Wheat 8
1.3 Rye 9
1.4 Triticale 10
1.5 Corn (Maize) 10
1.5.1 Dried Storable Corn Grain 10
1.5.2 Corn Grain Silage 11
1.6 Barley 12
1.7 Sweet Sorghum 12
1.8 Sorghum Grain 13
1.9 Manioc 13
2 Technical Amylolysis 14
2.1 Enzymatic Starch Liquefaction 14
2.1.1 Thermostable Bacterial a-Amylase
of Bacillus licheniformis (TEA) 15
2.1.2 Bacterial a-Amylase of Bacillus subtilis (BAA) 15
2.1.3 Bacterial a-Amylase Expressed by Bacillus licheniformis
(BAB) 16
2.1.4 Fungal a-Amylase of Aspergillus oryzae (FAA) 16
2.2 Enzymatic Starch Liquefaction and Saccharification 16
2.2.1 Green Malt 17
2.2.2 Kiln-Dried Malt 18
2.2.2.1 Barley as a Malting Grain 18
2.2.2.2 Other Grains in Malting 19
2.3 Enzymatic Starch Saccharification 20
2.3.1 Glucoamylase of Aspergillus niger (GAA) 20
2.3.2 Glucoamylase of Rhizopussp. (GAR) 20
2.3.3 Enzyme Combinations 21

3 Starch Degradation by Autoamylolysis 22
3.1 Wheat . . . .* 25
3.2 Rye 26
3.3 Triticale 27
4 Mashing Processes 29
4.1 Mashing Equipment 29
4.1.1 Wet Cleaning of Potatoes 29
4.1.2 Grinding Raw Materials 30
4.1.2.1 Mills 30
4.1.2.2 Dispersing Machines 31
4.1.3 Mash Tubs 32
4.1.4 Heat Exchangers 33
4.1.4.1 Processing with Heat Exchangers 34
4.1.5 Henze Cooker 35
4.2 Pressure Boiling Processes 36
4.2.1 High Pressure Cooking Process (HPCP) 36
4.2.2 Bacteria-Free Fermentation Process of Verlinden
(Verlinden Process, VP) 38
4.3 Pressureless Breakdown of Starch 38
4.3.1 Infusion Processes 38
4.3.1.1 Milling and Mashing Process
at Saccharification Temperature 38
4.3.1.2 GroBe-Lohmann-Spradau (GLS) Process 40
4.3.1.3 Milling and Mashing Process
at Higher Temperatures (MMP) 41
4.3.2 Recycling Processes 42
4.3.2.1 Stillage Recycling Process (SRP) 42
4.3.2.2 Dispersing Mash Process Developed
at Hohenheim University (DMP) 43
5 Processing Potatoes 45
6 Processing Grain 46
6.1 Wheat 48
6.2 Rye 48
6.3 Triticale 49
6.4 Corn 49
6.4.1 Dried Storable Corn Grain 49
6.4.2 Corn Grain Silage 50
6.5 Barley 50

7 Processing Tropical Raw Materials 51
7.1 Sweet Sorghum 51
7.2 Sorghum Grain 52
7.3 Manioc 52
8 Mashing Processes Using Autoamylolytical Activities
in Raw Materials 52
8.1 Processing Wheat 53
8.2 Processing Triticale 53
8.3 Processing Rye 54
8.4 Saccharification of Raw Materials with Weak Autoamylolytical
Activities (Wheat, Corn, Potatoes) 54
9 Yeast Mash Treatment 56
10 Fermentation 57
10.1 Batch Fermentation 57
10.2 Suppression of Contaminants 59
11 Distillation 60
11.1 Distillation of Raw Spirit from Mashes 60
11.2 Rectification of Product Spirit from Raw Spirit 63
11.3 Distillation and Rectification of the Alcohol Product
from Mashes 65
12 Stillage 66
12.1 Stillage as a Feedstuff 66
12.2 Stillage as a Fertilizer 68
13 Analytical Methods 71
13.1 Introduction 71
13.2 Analysis of Raw Materials 71
13.2.1 Starch Content of Potatoes 71
13.2.2 Starch Content of Grain 72
13.2.2.1 Determination of Fermentable Substance
in Grain (FS) 72
13.2.3 Autoamylolytical Quotient (AAQ) 74
13.3 Analysis of Mashes 76
13.3.1 Mash Hydrosizing 76
13.3.2 Extract of Mashes 77
13.3.3 pH of Mashes 78
13.3.4 Content of Ethanol in Mashes and Distillates 78
13.3.5 Microexamination 79

13.4 Analysis of Yeast Mashes 79
13.5 Analysis of Stillage 80
13.5.1 Content of Ethanol in Stillage 80
13.5.2 Content of Starch and Fermentable Sugars in Stillage . 80
14 Energy Consumption and Energy Balance in Classical Processes . . 81
15 References 84
Part II 87
Potential Source of Energy and Chemical Products 89
N. Kosaric and F. Vardar-Sukan
1 Introduction 89
2 Microbiology and Biochemistry of Ethanol Formation 90
2.1 Yeast Fermentation 92
2.2 Ethanol Fermentation with Bacteria 99
2.2.1 Thermophilic Organisms 102
2.3 Bacteria vs. Yeast 103
2.4 Genetically Modified Organisms 105
3 Immobilized Cell Systems 107
4 Substrates for Industrial Alcohol Production 115
4.1 Sugar Crops 116
4.1.1 Sugarcane 116
4.1.2 Sugar and Fodder Beets 117
4.1.3 Fruit Crops 117
4.2 Industrial and Food Processing Wastes 119
4.2.1 Waste Sulfite Liquors (WSL) 119
4.2.2 Whey 120
4.2.3 Food Industry Wastes 120
4.3 Starches 121
4.3.1 Corn 121
4.3.2 Cassava 122
4.3.3 Sweet Potato 123
4.3.4 Sweet Sorghum 123
4.3.5 Jerusalem Artichoke 123
4.3.6 Starch Saccharification 125
4.3.6.1 Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Starch 125
4.3.6.2 Acid Hydrolysis of Starch , . 125

4.4 Lignocellulose 125
4.4.1 Characteristics of Lignocellulosic Material 126
4.4.2 Pretreatment 128
4.4.2.1 Milling 128
4.4.2.2 Steam Explosion 129
4.4.2.3 Use of Solvents 130
4.4.2.4 Swelling Agents 131
4.4.2.5 Lignin-Consuming Microorganisms 131
4.4.3 Acid Hydrolysis 132
4.4.3.1 Concentrated Acid 133
4.4.3.2 DiluteAcid 133
4.4.4 Enzymatic Hydrolysis 136
4.4.4.1 Mechanism of Enzymatic Hydrolysis 137
4.4.4.2 Comparison of Enzymatic and Acid Hydrolysis . . 138
5 Fermentation Modes of Industrial Interest 139
5.1 Batch Process 139
5.2 Fed-Batch Processes 141
5.3 Semi-Continuous Processes 143
5.4 Continuous Processes 145
6 Industrial Processes 149
6.1 Types of Bioreactors for Ethanol Production 149
6.1.1 Solid Phase Fermentation (Ex-Ferm Process) 155
6.1.2 Simultaneous Saccharification
and Fermentation (SSF) Process 155
6.1.3 Recycle Systems 157
6.1.4 Novel Reactors for On-Line Product Removal 157
6.2 Some Examples of Industrial Processes 163
6.2.1 Ethanol from Corn 163
6.2.2 Ethanol from Cassava Root 166
6.2.3 Ethanol from Potatoes 168
6.2.4 Ethanol from Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers (Topinambur) . 169
6.2.5 Ethanol from Carob Pod Extract 169
6.2.6 Ethanol from Cellulose 170
6.2.6.1 Dilute Sulfuric Acid Process 170
6.2.6.2 Strong Acid Hydrolysis Process 173
6.2.6.3 Ethanol Production from Agricultural Residues
via Acid Hydrolysis 174
6.2.6.4 Ethanol from Newspaper
via Enzymatic Hydrolysis 176
6.2.6.5 Ethanol from Municipal Solid Waste
via Acid Hydrolysis 176

6.2.7 Ethanol from Waste Sulfite Liquor (WSL) 181
6.2.8 Ethanol from Whey 181
7 By-Products of Ethanol Fermentation 182
7.1 Waste Biomass 182
7.2 Stillage 182
7.3 Carbon Dioxide 186
7.4 Fusel Oils 186
8 Economic and Energy Aspects of Ethanol Fermentation 187
8.1 Ethanol from Jerusalem Artichokes (A Case Study) 196
8.2 Energetics 201
8.2.1 Ethanol from Corn 201
8.2.2 Ethanol from Sugarcane and Cassava 202
8.2.3 Ethanol from Wood 203
8.2.4 Ethanol from Cornstalks 204
9 Ethanol as a Liquid Fuel 204
9.1 Characteristics of Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends
as Motor Fuel 206
9.1.1 Exhaust and Evaporative Emissions 206
9.1.2 Ignition, Cold Start-Up, and Driveability 207
9.1.3 Water Tolerance of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends 208
9.1.4 Lubrication 209
9.1.5 Corrosion and Materials Compatibility
for Alcohol-Fuelled Vehicles 209
9.1.6 Safety of Alcohol 210
9.2 Modifications and Conversions
of Existing Internal Combustion Engines
to Utilize Ethanol and Ethanol-Gasoline Blends 210
9.2.1 Research 210
9.2.2 Applications 212
9.3 Comparison of Ethanol with Other Motor Fuels 213
10 Present and Potential Markets for Ethanol 215
11 Future Trends and Research /. 218
12 References 220

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