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GIANT MOLECULES Essential Materials for Everyday Living and Problem Solving - Charles E. Carraher

Contents


1 The Building Blocks of Our World 1
1.1 Introduction / 2
1.2 Setting the Stage / 2
1.3 Basic Laws / 3
1.4 Matter/Energy / 5
1.5 Symbols for the Elements / 7
1.6 Elements / 7
1.7 Atoms / 8
1.8 Classical Atomic Structure / 8
1.9 Modern Atomic Structure / 10
1.10 Periodicity / 11
1.11 Molecular Structure / 14
1.12 Chemical Equations / 17
1.13 Chemical Bonding / 20
1.14 Intermolecular Forces / 24
1.15 Units of Measurement / 25
Glossary / 26
Review Questions / 28
Bibliography / 29
Answers to Review Questions / 30
2 Small Organic Molecules 31
2.1 Introduction / 31
2.2 Early Developments in Organic Chemistry / 32
2.3 Alkanes / 32
2.4 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons (Alkenes) / 35
2.5 Aliphatic Compounds / 39
2.6 Unsaturated Compounds / 42
2.7 Benzene and Its Derivatives (Aromatic Compounds) / 43

2.8 Heterocyclic Compounds / 44
2.9 Polymeric Structure / 46
2.10 Structures / 47
Glossary / 50
Review Questions / 53
Bibliography / 54
Answers to Review Questions / 54
3 Introduction to the Science of Giant Molecules 57
3.1 A Brief History of Chemical Science and Technology / 58
3.2 Polymerization / 64
3.3 Importance of Giant Molecules / 68
3.4 Polymer Properties / 69
A. Memory / 69
B. Solubility and Flexibility / 70
C. Cross-Links / 73
3.5 A Few Definitions of Polymers (Macromolecules) / 73
3.6 Polymer Structure / 75
3.7 Molecular Weights of Polymers / 78
3.8 Polymeric Transitions / 80
3.9 Testing of Polymers / 80
3.10 Chemical Names of Polymers / 81
3.11 Trade Names of Polymers / 82
3.12 Importance of Descriptive Nomenclature / 82
3.13 Marketplace / 82
Glossary / 86
Review Questions / 91
Bibliography / 92
Answers to Review Questions / 92
4 Relationships Between the Properties and Structure
of Giant Molecules 95
4.1 General / 96
4.2 Elastomers / 97
4.3 Fibers / 98
4.4 Plastics / 98
4.5 Adhesives / 99
4.6 Coatings / 99
4.7 Polyblends and Composites / 100
4.8 Crystalline–Amorphous Structures / 101
A. Chain Flexibility / 107
B. Intermolecular Forces / 108
C. Structural Regularity / 108
D. Steric Effects / 109

4.9 Summary / 109
Glossary / 110
Review Questions / 110
Bibliography / 111
Answers to Review Questions / 111
5 Physical and Chemical Testing of Polymers 113
5.1 Testing Organizations / 114
5.2 Evaluation of Test Data / 117
5.3 Stress/Strain Relationships / 117
5.4 Heat Deflection Test / 120
5.5 Coefficient of Linear Expansion / 121
5.6 Compressive Strength / 121
5.7 Flexural Strength / 121
5.8 Impact Test / 123
5.9 Tensile Strength / 123
5.10 Hardness Test / 124
5.11 Glass Transition Temperature and Melting Point / 126
5.12 Density (Specific Gravity) / 126
5.13 Resistance to Chemicals / 128
5.14 Water Absorption / 129
Glossary / 129
Review Questions / 130
Bibliography / 130
Answers to Review Questions / 132
6 Thermoplastics 133
6.1 Introduction / 134
6.2 Polyethylenes—History / 136
6.3 High-Density Polyethylene / 138
6.4 Low-Density Polyethylene / 143
6.5 Ultrahigh-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene / 145
6.6 Linear Low-Density Polyethylene / 145
6.7 Cross-Linked Polyethylene / 146
6.8 Other Copolymers of Ethylene / 147
6.9 Polypropylene / 147
6.10 Other Polyolefins / 151
6.11 Polystyrene / 151
6.12 Styrene Copolymers / 153
6.13 Poly(Vinyl Chloride) and Copolymers / 156
6.14 Fluorocarbon Polymers / 157
6.15 Acrylic Polymers / 160
6.16 Poly(Vinyl Acetate) / 161

6.17 Poly(Vinyl Ethers) / 162
6.18 Cellulosics / 162
6.19 Plastics Processing / 163
A. Introduction / 163
B. Casting / 165
C. Blow Molding / 166
D. Injection Molding / 166
E. Laminating / 167
F. Compression Molding / 170
G. Rotational Molding / 171
H. Calendering / 171
I. Extrusion / 174
J. Thermoforming / 175
K. Reinforced Plastics / 175
L. Conclusion / 175
Glossary / 176
Review Questions / 177
Bibliography / 178
Answers to Review Questions / 180
7 Engineering Plastics 183
7.1 Introduction / 183
7.2 Nylons / 184
7.3 Polyesters / 187
7.4 Polycarbonates / 191
7.5 Polyacetals/Polyethers / 192
7.6 Poly(Phenylene Oxide) / 194
7.7 Poly(Phenylene Sulfide) / 194
7.8 Poly(Aryl Sulfones) / 195
7.9 Polyimides / 197
7.10 Poly(Ether Ether Ketone) and Polyketones / 199
7.11 Polysiloxanes / 200
7.12 Other Engineering Thermoplastics / 203
Glossary / 204
Review Questions / 206
Bibliography / 207
Answers to Review Questions / 208
8 Thermosets 209
8.1 Introduction / 209
8.2 Phenolic Resins / 210
8.3 Urea Resins / 214
8.4 Melamine Resins / 215

8.5 Alkyds–Polyester Resins / 216
8.6 Epoxy Resins / 218
8.7 Silicones / 219
8.8 Polyurethanes / 221
8.9 Plastic Composites / 222
Glossary / 223
Review Questions / 225
Bibliography / 226
Answers to Review Questions / 227
9 Fibers 229
9.1 Introduction / 229
9.2 Production Techniques / 232
9.3 Nylons / 235
9.4 Polyesters / 240
9.5 Acrylic Fibers / 241
9.6 Glass Fibers / 242
9.7 Polyolefins / 243
9.8 Polyurethanes / 244
9.9 Other Fibers / 244
Glossary / 247
Review Questions / 249
Bibliography / 249
Answers to Review Questions / 250
10 Rubbers (Elastomers) 251
10.1 Early History / 251
10.2 General Properties of Elastomers / 254
10.3 Structure of Natural Rubber (NR) / 254
10.4 Harvesting Natural Rubber / 257
10.5 Styrene–Butadiene Rubber (SBR) / 258
10.6 Polymers from 1,4-Dienes / 259
10.7 Polyisobutylene / 262
10.8 Heat-Softened Elastomers / 262
10.9 Other Synthetic Elastomers / 263
10.10 Processing of Elastomers / 265
10.11 Tires / 267
10.12 The Bounce / 270
Glossary / 270
Review Questions / 273
Bibliography / 273
Answers to Review Questions / 274

11 Paints, Coatings, Sealants, and Adhesives 275
11.1 History of Paints / 276
11.2 Paint / 276
11.3 Paint Resins / 278
11.4 Water-Based Paints / 279
11.5 Pigments / 280
11.6 Application Techniques for Coatings / 280
11.7 End Uses for Coatings / 281
11.8 Solvent Selection / 282
11.9 Sealants / 282
11.10 History of Adhesives / 283
11.11 Adhesion / 284
11.12 Types of Adhesives / 284
11.13 Resinous Adhesives / 285
Glossary / 286
Review Questions / 289
Bibliography / 290
Answers to Review Questions / 291
12 Composites 293
12.1 Introduction / 293
12.2 General / 294
12.3 Theory / 294
12.4 Fiber-Reinforced Composites / 295
A. Fibers / 295
B. Matrixes (Resins) / 297
12.5 Particle-Reinforced Composites—Large-Particle Composites / 297
12.6 Applications / 298
12.7 Processing—Fiber-Reinforced Composites / 300
12.8 Processing—Structural Composites / 301
12.9 Processing—Laminates / 302
12.10 Nanocomposites / 302
Glossary / 303
Review Questions / 303
Bibliography / 304
Answers to Review Questions / 304
13 Nature’s Giant Molecules: The Plant Kingdom 307
13.1 Introduction / 307
13.2 Simple Carbohydrates (Small Molecules) / 308
13.3 Cellulose / 311
13.4 Cotton / 315

13.5 Paper / 315
13.6 Starch / 317
13.7 Other Carbohydrate Polymers / 318
13.8 Lignin / 319
13.9 Bitumens / 320
13.10 Other Natural Products from Plants / 321
13.11 Photosynthesis / 322
Glossary / 323
Review Questions / 325
Bibliography / 325
Answers to Review Questions / 326
14 Nature’s Giant Molecules: The Animal Kingdom 329
14.1 Introduction / 329
14.2 Amino Acids / 330
14.3 Proteins / 334
14.4 Protein Structure / 334
14.5 Enzymes / 343
14.6 Wool / 343
14.7 Silk / 344
14.8 Nucleic Acids / 345
14.9 The Genetic Code / 352
14.10 Genetic Engineering / 355
14.11 DNA Profiling / 356
14.12 Melanins / 357
Glossary / 359
Review Questions / 361
Bibliography / 362
Answers to Review Questions / 362
15 Derivatives of Natural Polymers 365
15.1 Introduction / 365
15.2 Derivatives of Cellulose / 366
15.3 Derivatives of Starch / 371
15.4 Leather / 371
15.5 Regenerated Protein / 372
15.6 Natural Rubber / 372
15.7 Derivatives of Natural Rubber / 373
15.8 Modified Wool / 373
15.9 Japanese Lacquer / 374
15.10 Natural Polymers Through Biotechnology / 374

15.11 Other Products Based on Natural Polymers / 374
Glossary / 375
Review Questions / 376
Bibliography / 377
Answers to Review Questions / 377
16 Inorganic Polymers 379
16.1 Introduction / 380
16.2 Portland Cement / 380
16.3 Other Cements / 381
16.4 Silicates / 381
16.5 Silicon Dioxide (Amorphous)—Glass / 385
16.6 Silicon Dioxide (Crystalline)—Quartz / 388
16.7 Asbestos / 388
16.8 Polymeric Carbon—Diamond / 389
16.9 Polymeric Carbon—Graphite / 391
16.10 Polymeric Carbon—Nanotubes / 392
16.11 Ceramics / 396
16.12 High-Temperature Superconductors / 397
16.13 Viscoelastic Behavior / 398
Glossary / 400
Review Questions / 402
Bibliography / 402
Answers to Review Questions / 403
17 Specialty Polymers 405
17.1 Water-Soluble Polymers / 406
17.2 Oil-Soluble Polymers / 407
17.3 Polymeric Foams / 407
17.4 Polymer Cement / 407
17.5 Xerography / 408
17.6 Piezoelectric Materials / 409
17.7 Conductive and Semiconductive Materials / 409
17.8 Silicon Chips / 411
17.9 Ion-Exchange Resins and Anchored Catalysts / 411
17.10 Photoactive Materials / 413
17.11 Controlled-Release Polymers / 414
17.12 Dendrites / 414
17.13 Ionomers / 416
17.14 Liquid Crystals / 417
17.15 Recycling Codes / 419

17.16 Smart Materials / 420
Glossary / 420
Review Questions / 421
Bibliography / 422
Answers to Review Questions / 422
18 Additives and Starting Materials 425
18.1 Introduction / 426
18.2 Fillers / 426
18.3 Reinforcements / 430
18.4 Coupling Agents / 431
18.5 Antioxidants / 432
18.6 Heat Stabilizers / 433
18.7 Ultraviolet Stabilizers / 433
18.8 Flame Retardants / 434
18.9 Plasticizers / 434
18.10 Impact Modifiers / 436
18.11 Colorants / 436
18.12 Catalysts and Curing Agents / 436
18.13 Foaming Agents / 437
18.14 Biocides / 437
18.15 Lubricants and Processing Aids / 437
18.16 Antistats / 438
18.17 Starting Materials / 438
Glossary / 441
Review Questions / 443
Bibliography / 443
Answers to Review Questions / 444
19 The Future of Giant Molecules 445
19.1 The Age of Giant Molecules / 445
19.2 Recycling Giant Molecules / 447
19.3 Emerging Areas / 448
19.4 New Products / 449
Bibliography / 452
Appendix 1. Studying Giant Molecules 455
Appendix 2. Electronic Web Sites 459

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