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Nuclear Import and Export in Plants and Animals - T. Tzfira, Vitaly Citovsky

Contents


1. Structure of the Nuclear Pore ................................................................. 1
Michael Elbaum
Structure and Assembly ......................................................................... 3
Molecular Dissection and Proteomics .................................................. 11
FG Repeats .......................................................................................... 14
Transport Models in Relation to Structure .......................................... 15
The Minimal Pore ............................................................................... 16
Assembly Revisited .............................................................................. 17
2. Integral Proteins of the Nuclear Pore Membrane ................................. 28
Merav Cohen, Katherine L. Wilson and Yosef Gruenbaum
Yeast POMs ........................................................................................ 28
Vertebrate POMs ................................................................................ 30
Cell Cycle Dynamics of the NPC ........................................................ 30
Membrane Fusion and Nuclear Pore Formation.................................. 31
3. Subnuclear Trafficking and the Nuclear Matrix ................................... 35
Iris Meier
Nuclear Matrix Targeting Signals ........................................................ 36
Regulated Nuclear Matrix Interaction ................................................. 43
Compromised Subnuclear Localization and Disease ............................ 44
4. Nuclear Import and Export Signals ...................................................... 50
Toshihiro Sekimoto, Jun Katahira and Yoshihiro Yoneda
Definition of Nuclear Import and Export Signals ................................ 50
Basic Type NLSs ................................................................................. 51
Non-Basic Type NLSs ......................................................................... 53
NESs Recognized by Importin β Related Proteins ............................... 53
Sequences Acting As Both NES and NLS ............................................ 55
5. Nuclear Import of Plant Proteins ......................................................... 61
Glenn R. Hicks
Protein Import in Animals and Yeast ................................................... 61
Nuclear Translocation in Plants .......................................................... 62
Regulated Protein Import in Plant Development................................. 71
Recent Advances in Plant Nuclear Translocation ................................. 74

6. Nuclear Import of Agrobacterium T-DNA .......................................... 83
Tzvi Tzfira, Benoit Lacroix and Vitaly Citovsky
The Genetic Transformation Process ................................................... 85
T-Complex Export to Plant Cells ........................................................ 86
Molecular Structure of the Mature T-complex .................................... 87
T-Complex Nuclear Import ................................................................ 88
Host Cell Proteins That Interact with VirD2 and VirE2 ..................... 89
VirE3, a Bacterial Substitute for the Host Protein VIP1 ...................... 92
A Model for T-DNA Nuclear Import and Intranuclear Transport ...... 92
7. Regulation of Nuclear Import and Export of Proteins in Plants
and Its Role in Light Signal Transduction .......................................... 100
Stefan Kircher, Thomas Merkle, Eberhard Schäfer and Ferenc Nagy
Nuclear Import of Proteins ................................................................ 100
Nuclear Export of Proteins ................................................................ 102
The Regulatory GTPase Ran ............................................................. 102
Plant Factors and Plant-Specific Features of Nuclear Transport ......... 103
Regulation of Nuclear Transport As a Tool to Regulate Signaling ..... 104
Nucleocytoplasmic Partitioning in Light Signal Transduction ........... 104
8. Nuclear Export: Shuttling across the Nuclear Pore ............................. 118
John A. Hanover and Dona C. Love
The Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC) ................................................... 119
Methods for Analyzing Nuclear Export ............................................. 119
Rev-GR-GFP: Nuclear Export in Vitro ............................................. 121
The Nuclear Export Receptors (Karyopherins): Importins
and Exportins ................................................................................ 121
A Nonclassical Export Receptor: Calreticulin .................................... 125
Calcium-Dependent Modulation of Nuclear Transport? ................... 125
Mechanism of Nuclear Protein Export and Shuttling ........................ 127
Export of RNA: Ribosomes, tRNA, snRNA and mRNA ................... 128
Chromatin Organization and Transcriptional Repression .................. 131
Export Machinery, Pre-mRNA Splicing, and Nonsense
Mediated Decay ............................................................................ 131
9. Nuclear Protein Import: Distinct Intracellular Receptors
for DifferentTypes of Import Substrates ............................................ 137
David A. Jans and Jade K. Forwood
The Transport Process ....................................................................... 138
α Importins ....................................................................................... 138
Importin β1 and Homologs .............................................................. 150
Competition between Target Sequences/Receptors ............................ 151
Distinct Nuclear Import Receptor for Different Types of TFs;
Differential Regulation? ................................................................. 153
Unanswered Questions ...................................................................... 155

10. The Molecular Mechanisms of mRNA Export ................................... 161
Tetsuya Taura, Mikiko C. Siomi and Haruhiko Siomi
Ran Dependent Nucleocytoplasmic Transport .................................. 162
RanGTPase Dependent RNA Exports ............................................... 163
Export of mRNA ............................................................................... 163
From Gene to Nuclear Pore to Cytoplasm ........................................ 165
TAP-Mediated mRNA Export: Ran Independent
Nucleocytoplasmic Transport ........................................................ 165
An Adaptor Protein and Other Conserved mRNA Export Factors .... 166
Interactions between mRNA Export Machineries
and Nucleoporins .......................................................................... 167
Links between mRNA Quality Control and Nuclear Export ............. 167
11. Nuclear Import and Export of Mammalian Viruses............................ 175
Michael Bukrinsky
Transport to the Nuclear Envelope .................................................... 176
Interactions at the Nuclear Pore ........................................................ 177
Export through the Nuclear Pore ...................................................... 179
12. Nuclear Import of DNA..................................................................... 187
David A. Dean and Kerimi E. Gokay
The Nuclear Envelope Is a Barrier to Gene Delivery ......................... 187
Nuclear Import of DNAs in Non-Dividing Cells .............................. 189
Plasmid Nuclear Import .................................................................... 189
Nuclear Import of Plasmids in Cell-Free Systems .............................. 195
Alternative Pathways for Plasmid Nuclear Uptake ............................. 196
Viral Nuclear Import ......................................................................... 197
Nuclear Import of Single-Stranded DNA .......................................... 199
Nuclear Import of Oligonucleotides .................................................. 199
13. Research Methodologies for the Investigation of Cell Nucleus ........... 206
Jose Omar Bustamante
Methods ............................................................................................ 207
Index ..................................................................................................225

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