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Synthetic Polymers for Biotechnology and Medicine - Ruth Freitag

Contents


1. Cell Encapsulation: Generalities, Methods, Applications
and Bioartificial Pancreas Case Study ..................................................... 1
Gabriela Grigorescu and David Hunkeler
Introduction .......................................................................................... 1
Immunoisolation ................................................................................... 4
Cell Delivery ......................................................................................... 5
Microencapsulation ............................................................................... 7
Bioartificial Organs ............................................................................... 7
Case Study: Insulin Production Systems .............................................. 10
Socio-Political Considerations ............................................................. 13
Conclusions ......................................................................................... 14
2. Synthetic and Semisynthetic Polymers as Vehicles
for In Vitro Gene Delivery into Cultured Mammalian Cells ................ 19
Martin Jordan
Introduction: Impact of Molecular Biology ......................................... 19
Areas in Need of Efficient Gene Delivery ............................................ 20
The DNA Molecule ............................................................................ 21
Barriers to Efficient Gene Transfer ...................................................... 21
Conclusions ......................................................................................... 35
Definitions .......................................................................................... 36
Structures of Frequently Used Molecules ............................................. 37
3. Affinity Precipitation: Stimulus-Responsive Polymers
for Bioseparation .................................................................................. 40
Ruth Freitag
Introduction ........................................................................................ 40
The Role of Affinity Separations in Product Isolation .......................... 41
The Principle and Application of Affinity Precipitation ....................... 43
Smart Polymers for Affinity Precipitation ............................................ 48
Thermosensitive AML ......................................................................... 50
Introduction of the Affinity Mediator ................................................. 53
Conclusions and Outlook .................................................................... 54
4. Synthetic Displacers for Preparative Biochromatography ..................... 58
Ruth Freitag and Christine Wandrey
Introduction ........................................................................................ 58
The Principle of Displacement Chromatography................................. 59
Displacers for Biochromatography ....................................................... 64
Polyelectrolytes .................................................................................... 73
Steric Mass Action Model .................................................................... 77
Systematic Displacer Design, Some Theoretical
Considerations ................................................................................ 82
Conclusions ......................................................................................... 84

5. Membrane Adsorbers for Decontamination
and Leukocyte Removal ....................................................................... 87
Galya Tishchenko and Miroslav Bleha
Introduction ........................................................................................ 87
Evaluation of the Adsorbing Efficiency
of Interactive Membranes ................................................................ 88
Membranes for Depyrogenation (Endotoxin Removal) ....................... 90
Membranes for Removal of Bacteria and Viruses
from Aqueous Solution ................................................................. 108
Membranes for Removal of Leukocytes
from Blood Products ..................................................................... 110
Conclusions ....................................................................................... 112
6. Stimulus Responsive Surfaces: Possible Implications
for Biochromatography, Cell Detachment and Drug Delivery ........... 116
Igor Yu Galaev and Bo Mattiasson
Stimulus-Responsive Polymers .......................................................... 117
Polymer-Grafted Surfaces .................................................................. 119
Temperature-Responsive Chromatography........................................ 120
Cell Detachment from Polymer-Grafted Surfaces .............................. 122
Controlling Porosity via Smart Polymers—
The “Chemical Valve” ................................................................... 125
Polymer-Carrying Liposomes for Triggered
Release/Drug Delivery ................................................................... 127
Conclusions ....................................................................................... 129
7. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers: A New Dimension
in Analytical Bioseparation ................................................................. 134
Oliver Br├╝ggemann
Introduction ...................................................................................... 134
The Principle of Molecular Imprinting .............................................. 134
MIP for Bioseparation ....................................................................... 141
Binding Assays Using MIP ................................................................ 149
Sensor Technology ............................................................................ 151
MIP to Assist Chemical Synthesis ...................................................... 151
Conclusions ....................................................................................... 154

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