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The Fourth State Of Matter An Introduction To Plasma Science - eliezer

Contents


1 Highlights to Plasma 5
1.1 Unveiling Matter 5
1.2 Unveiling the Atom 7
1.3 Unveiling the Electron 12
1.4 Unveiling the Nucleus 16
1.5 Unveiling a New State of Matter 21
2 What is Plasma? 22
2.1 Introducing Plasma 22
2.2 A Visit to an Exotic Nightclub 26
2.3 A Joint Ping-Pong Game 27
2.4 The One-Mile Run 29
2.5 Shielding 33
2.6 Collisions 34
2.7 Swallowing and Ejecting Photons 37
2.8 The Agents 39
2.9 Safekeeping 43
2.10 Plasma Reflections 44
2.11 Plasma Compendium 47
3 A Universe of Plasma 49
3.1 Plasma in the Beginning 49
3.2 The Universe 52
3.3 The Magnetosphere 56
3.4 Light From the Stars 60
3.5 The Star’s Interior 63
3.6 The Solar Exterior 66

3.7 A Supernova Explosion 70
3.8 Synchrotron Radiation 72
3.9 Comets 75
3.10 From the Visual to the Plasma Universe 76
4 Plasma in Industry 79
4.1 Understanding Plasma for Application in Industry 79
4.2 Semiconductor Electronics 86
4.3 Plasma Modification of Materials 87
4.4 Plasma Spray 89
4.5 Plasma Welding, Cutting and Material Processing 92
4.6 Plasma Space Propulsion 93
4.7 Plasma Display Panels 94
4.8 Plasma and the Diamond Industry 94
4.9 Plasma and Treating Wastes 95
4.10 Plasma Lighting 96
4.11 Particle Accelerators and Plasma 98
4.12 X-Ray Lasers 99
4.13 Plasma Isotope Separation 100
4.14 Plasma Antennas 101
4.15 More Efficient, Unique, More Environmentally Clean 101
5 The Solution to the Energy Problem 103
5.1 Soylent Green 103
5.2 World Energy Consumption 106
5.3 Nuclear Energy 107
5.4 Nuclear Fusion Energy 108
5.5 Conditions for Nuclear Fusion 115
5.6 Ignition Temperature 118
5.7 Magnetic Confinement—Magnetic Bottles 119
5.8 Plasma Diffusion 120
5.9 Plasma Instabilities 122
5.10 Plasma Formation 124
5.11 Plasma Heating 124
5.12 The Tokamak 126
5.13 Magnetic Mirrors 129
5.14 Nuclear Fusion Reactors 130
5.15 Inertial Confinement with Lasers 132
5.16 Particle Beam Fusion 142
5.17 Advantages of Nuclear Fusion Energy 143
5.18 The Transition to the Fusion Era 144
5.19 TFTR, JET and other Magnetic Fusion Devices 147
5.20 Indirect Drive for Inertial Fusion Energy 149
5.21 Fast Ignitors 151

5.22 The Z-Pinch 152
5.23 Outlook 153
6 . . . More History of Plasma Physics 154
6.1 Plasma Without Realization 154
6.2 Realizing the Fourth State of Matter—Plasma 155
6.3 Controlled Lightning 157
6.4 The Ionosphere—A Plasma Mirror for Radio Signals 159
6.5 Plasma in Space 160
6.6 The Sun’s ‘Secret’ Source of Energy 161
6.7 Splitting the Atom—Fission 162
6.8 Fusion—The Synthesis of Light Nuclei 163
6.9 Solving the Energy Problem for the Generations Ahead 165
6.10 The Beginning of Controlled Nuclear Fusion in the USA 166
6.11 The Beginning of Nuclear Fusion in Britain and the
Soviet Union 168
6.12 International Declassification of Controlled Nuclear
Fusion 169
6.13 Landmarks in the Development of Plasma Physics 171

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