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Springer Handbook of NanoTechnology - B. Bhushan


Contents


1 Introduction to Nanotechnology ....................................................... 1
1.1 Background and Definition of Nanotechnology .............................. 1
1.2 Why Nano?................................................................................... 2
1.3 Lessons from Nature ..................................................................... 2
1.4 Applications in Different Fields ..................................................... 3
1.5 Reliability Issues of MEMS/NEMS .................................................... 4
1.6 Organization of the Handbook ...................................................... 5
References.............................................................................................. 5
Part A Nanostructures, Micro/Nanofabrication,
and Micro/Nanodevices
2 Nanomaterials Synthesis and Applications:
Molecule-Based Devices ..................................................................... 9
2.1 Chemical Approaches to Nanostructured Materials ......................... 10
2.2 Molecular Switches and Logic Gates............................................... 14
2.3 Solid State Devices........................................................................ 22
2.4 Conclusions and Outlook............................................................... 35
References.............................................................................................. 36
3 Introduction to Carbon Nanotubes.................................................... 39
3.1 Structure of Carbon Nanotubes...................................................... 40
3.2 Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes ..................................................... 45
3.3 Growth Mechanisms of Carbon Nanotubes ..................................... 59
3.4 Properties of Carbon Nanotubes .................................................... 63
3.5 Carbon Nanotube-Based Nano-Objects ......................................... 68
3.6 Applications of Carbon Nanotubes................................................. 73
References.............................................................................................. 86
4 Nanowires............................................................................................ 99
4.1 Synthesis ..................................................................................... 100
4.2 Characterization and Physical Properties of Nanowires ................... 110
4.3 Applications ................................................................................. 131
4.4 Concluding Remarks ..................................................................... 138
References.............................................................................................. 138
5 Introduction to Micro/Nanofabrication ............................................. 147
5.1 Basic Microfabrication Techniques................................................. 148
5.2 MEMS Fabrication Techniques........................................................ 159

5.3 Nanofabrication Techniques ......................................................... 170
References.............................................................................................. 180
6 Stamping Techniques for Micro and Nanofabrication:
Methods and Applications.................................................................. 185
6.1 High Resolution Stamps ................................................................ 186
6.2 Microcontact Printing ................................................................... 187
6.3 Nanotransfer Printing ................................................................... 190
6.4 Applications ................................................................................. 193
6.5 Conclusions.................................................................................. 200
References.............................................................................................. 200
7 Materials Aspects of Micro- and Nanoelectromechanical Systems.. 203
7.1 Silicon ......................................................................................... 203
7.2 Germanium-Based Materials ........................................................ 210
7.3 Metals ......................................................................................... 211
7.4 Harsh Environment Semiconductors .............................................. 212
7.5 GaAs, InP, and Related III-V Materials ........................................... 217
7.6 Ferroelectric Materials .................................................................. 218
7.7 Polymer Materials ........................................................................ 219
7.8 Future Trends ............................................................................... 220
References.............................................................................................. 221
8 MEMS/NEMS Devices and Applications................................................ 225
8.1 MEMS Devices and Applications ..................................................... 227
8.2 NEMS Devices and Applications ..................................................... 246
8.3 Current Challenges and Future Trends ........................................... 249
References.............................................................................................. 250
9 Microfluidics and Their Applications to Lab-on-a-Chip .................. 253
9.1 Materials for Microfluidic Devices
and Micro/Nano Fabrication Techniques ........................................ 254
9.2 Active Microfluidic Devices ............................................................ 257
9.3 Smart Passive Microfluidic Devices................................................. 262
9.4 Lab-on-a-Chip for Biochemical Analysis ....................................... 270
References.............................................................................................. 276
10 Therapeutic Nanodevices.................................................................... 279
10.1 Definitions and Scope of Discussion .............................................. 280
10.2 Synthetic Approaches: “top-down” versus “bottom-up”
Approaches for Nanotherapeutic Device Components ..................... 285
10.3 Technological and Biological Opportunities.................................... 288
10.4 Applications for Nanotherapeutic Devices ...................................... 307
10.5 Concluding Remarks: Barriers to Practice and Prospects ................. 315
References.............................................................................................. 317

Part B Scanning Probe Microscopy
11 Scanning Probe Microscopy – Principle of Operation,
Instrumentation, and Probes............................................................. 325
11.1 Scanning Tunneling Microscope .................................................... 327
11.2 Atomic Force Microscope ............................................................... 331
11.3 AFM Instrumentation and Analyses ............................................... 347
References.............................................................................................. 364
12 Probes in Scanning Microscopies ....................................................... 371
12.1 Atomic Force Microscopy ............................................................... 372
12.2 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy..................................................... 382
References.............................................................................................. 383
13 Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy and Its Related Topics........... 385
13.1 Principles of Noncontact Atomic Force Microscope (NC-AFM) ........... 386
13.2 Applications to Semiconductors .................................................... 391
13.3 Applications to Insulators ............................................................. 397
13.4 Applications to Molecules ............................................................. 404
References.............................................................................................. 407
14 Low Temperature Scanning Probe Microscopy.................................. 413
14.1 Microscope Operation at Low Temperatures ................................... 414
14.2 Instrumentation........................................................................... 415
14.3 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy .......................... 419
14.4 Scanning Force Microscopy and Spectroscopy ................................. 433
References.............................................................................................. 442
15 Dynamic Force Microscopy .................................................................. 449
15.1 Motivation: Measurement of a Single Atomic Bond ........................ 450
15.2 Harmonic Oscillator: A Model System for Dynamic AFM ................... 454
15.3 Dynamic AFM Operational Modes................................................... 455
15.4 Q-Control..................................................................................... 464
15.5 Dissipation Processes Measured with Dynamic AFM ........................ 468
15.6 Conclusion ................................................................................... 471
References.............................................................................................. 471
16 Molecular Recognition Force Microscopy........................................... 475
16.1 Ligand Tip Chemistry .................................................................... 476
16.2 Fixation of Receptors to Probe Surfaces ......................................... 478
16.3 Single-Molecule Recognition Force Detection................................. 479
16.4 Principles of Molecular Recognition Force Spectroscopy .................. 482
16.5 Recognition Force Spectroscopy: From Isolated Molecules
to Biological Membranes .............................................................. 484
16.6 Recognition Imaging .................................................................... 489
16.7 Concluding Remarks ..................................................................... 491
References.............................................................................................. 492

Part C Nanotribology and Nanomechanics
17 Micro/Nanotribology and Materials Characterization Studies
Using Scanning Probe Microscopy...................................................... 497
17.1 Description of AFM/FFM and Various Measurement Techniques ....... 499
17.2 Friction and Adhesion .................................................................. 507
17.3 Scratching, Wear, Local Deformation, and Fabrication/Machining ... 518
17.4 Indentation ................................................................................. 526
17.5 Boundary Lubrication ................................................................... 530
17.6 Closure ........................................................................................ 538
References.............................................................................................. 539
18 Surface Forces and Nanorheology of Molecularly Thin Films........... 543
18.1 Introduction: Types of Surface Forces............................................. 544
18.2 Methods Used to Study Surface Forces ........................................... 546
18.3 Normal Forces Between Dry (Unlubricated) Surfaces ....................... 550
18.4 Normal Forces Between Surfaces in Liquids.................................... 554
18.5 Adhesion and Capillary Forces ....................................................... 564
18.6 Introduction: Different Modes of Friction and the Limits
of Continuum Models ................................................................... 569
18.7 Relationship Between Adhesion and Friction Between Dry
(Unlubricated and Solid Boundary Lubricated) Surfaces .................. 571
18.8 Liquid Lubricated Surfaces ............................................................ 580
18.9 Role of Molecular Shape and Surface Structure in Friction .............. 591
References.............................................................................................. 594
19 Scanning Probe Studies of Nanoscale Adhesion Between Solids
in the Presence of Liquids and Monolayer Films.............................. 605
19.1 The Importance of Adhesion at the Nanoscale ............................... 605
19.2 Techniques for Measuring Adhesion .............................................. 606
19.3 Calibration of Forces, Displacements, and Tips ............................... 610
19.4 The Effect of Liquid Capillaries on Adhesion ................................... 612
19.5 Self-Assembled Monolayers .......................................................... 618
19.6 Concluding Remarks ..................................................................... 624
References.............................................................................................. 624
20 Friction and Wear on the Atomic Scale ............................................. 631
20.1 Friction Force Microscopy in Ultra-High Vacuum............................. 632
20.2 The Tomlinson Model.................................................................... 636
20.3 Friction Experiments on Atomic Scale ............................................ 638
20.4 Thermal Effects on Atomic Friction ................................................ 642
20.5 Geometry Effects in Nanocontacts ................................................. 646
20.6 Wear on the Atomic Scale ............................................................. 649
20.7 Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Atomic Friction and Wear ......... 651
20.8 Energy Dissipation in Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy ............. 654
20.9 Conclusion ................................................................................... 656
References.............................................................................................. 657

21 Nanoscale Mechanical Properties –
Measuring Techniques and Applications........................................... 661
21.1 Local Mechanical Spectroscopy by Contact AFM............................... 662
21.2 Static Methods – Mesoscopic Samples ........................................... 667
21.3 Scanning Nanoindentation: An Application to Bone Tissue ............. 674
21.4 Conclusions and Perspectives ........................................................ 682
References.............................................................................................. 682
22 Nanomechanical Properties of Solid Surfaces and Thin Films......... 687
22.1 Instrumentation........................................................................... 688
22.2 Data Analysis ............................................................................... 694
22.3 Modes of Deformation .................................................................. 702
22.4 Thin Films and Multilayers ............................................................ 707
22.5 Developing Areas.......................................................................... 711
References.............................................................................................. 712
23 Atomistic Computer Simulations of Nanotribology .......................... 717
23.1 Molecular Dynamics...................................................................... 718
23.2 Friction Mechanisms at the Atomic Scale ....................................... 723
23.3 Stick-Slip Dynamics ...................................................................... 732
23.4 Conclusions.................................................................................. 734
References.............................................................................................. 735
24 Mechanics of Biological Nanotechnology.......................................... 739
24.1 Science at the Biology–Nanotechnology Interface .......................... 740
24.2 Scales at the Bio-Nano Interface ................................................... 746
24.3 Modeling at the Nano-Bio Interface .............................................. 752
24.4 Nature’s Nanotechnology Revealed: Viruses as a Case Study ........... 755
24.5 Concluding Remarks ..................................................................... 760
References.............................................................................................. 761
25 Mechanical Properties of Nanostructures ......................................... 763
25.1 Experimental Techniques for Measurement of Mechanical
Properties of Nanostructures ......................................................... 765
25.2 Experimental Results and Discussion ............................................. 770
25.3 Finite Element Analysis of Nanostructures with Roughness
and Scratches............................................................................... 778
25.4 Closure ........................................................................................ 785
References.............................................................................................. 786
Part D Molecularly Thick Films for Lubrication
26 Nanotribology of Ultrathin and Hard Amorphous Carbon Films ..... 791
26.1 Description of Commonly Used Deposition Techniques ................... 795
26.2 Chemical Characterization and Effect of Deposition Conditions
on Chemical Characteristics and Physical Properties ....................... 800

26.3 Micromechanical and Tribological Characterizations
of Coatings Deposited by Various Techniques ................................. 805
References.............................................................................................. 827
27 Self-Assembled Monolayers for Controlling Adhesion,
Friction and Wear................................................................................ 831
27.1 A Primer to Organic Chemistry ....................................................... 834
27.2 Self-Assembled Monolayers: Substrates, Head Groups,
Spacer Chains, and End Groups ..................................................... 839
27.3 Tribological Properties of SAMs ...................................................... 841
27.4 Closure ........................................................................................ 856
References.............................................................................................. 857
28 Nanoscale Boundary Lubrication Studies .......................................... 861
28.1 Lubricants Details ......................................................................... 862
28.2 Nanodeformation, Molecular Conformation,
and Lubricant Spreading .............................................................. 864
28.3 Boundary Lubrication Studies ....................................................... 866
28.4 Closure ........................................................................................ 880
References.............................................................................................. 881
29 Kinetics and Energetics in Nanolubrication...................................... 883
29.1 Background: From Bulk to Molecular Lubrication ........................... 885
29.2 Thermal Activation Model of Lubricated Friction............................. 887
29.3 Functional Behavior of Lubricated Friction..................................... 888
29.4 Thermodynamical Models Based on Small
and Nonconforming Contacts ........................................................ 890
29.5 Limitation of the Gaussian Statistics – The Fractal Space ................ 891
29.6 Fractal Mobility in Reactive Lubrication ......................................... 892
29.7 Metastable Lubricant Systems in Large Conforming Contacts ........... 894
29.8 Conclusion ................................................................................... 895
References.............................................................................................. 895
Part E Industrial Applications and Microdevice Reliability
30 Nanotechnology for Data Storage Applications ................................ 899
30.1 Current Status of Commercial Data Storage Devices......................... 901
30.2 Opportunities Offered by Nanotechnology for Data Storage............. 907
30.3 Conclusion ................................................................................... 918
References.............................................................................................. 919
31 The “Millipede” –
A Nanotechnology-Based AFM Data-Storage System ....................... 921
31.1 The Millipede Concept .................................................................. 923
31.2 Thermomechanical AFM Data Storage ............................................ 924
31.3 Array Design, Technology, and Fabrication .................................... 926

31.4 Array Characterization .................................................................. 927
31.5 x/y/z Medium Microscanner .......................................................... 929
31.6 First Write/Read Results with the 32×32 Array Chip.......................... 931
31.7 Polymer Medium .......................................................................... 932
31.8 Read Channel Model..................................................................... 939
31.9 System Aspects ............................................................................. 943
31.10 Conclusions.................................................................................. 948
References.............................................................................................. 948
32 Microactuators for Dual-Stage Servo Systems
in Magnetic Disk Files ......................................................................... 951
32.1 Design of the Electrostatic Microactuator ....................................... 952
32.2 Fabrication .................................................................................. 962
32.3 Servo Control Design
of MEMS Microactuator Dual-Stage Servo Systems .......................... 968
32.4 Conclusions and Outlook............................................................... 978
References.............................................................................................. 979
33 Micro/Nanotribology of MEMS/NEMS Materials and Devices ............. 983
33.1 Introduction to MEMS ................................................................... 985
33.2 Introduction to NEMS.................................................................... 988
33.3 Tribological Issues in MEMS/NEMS .................................................. 989
33.4 Tribological Studies of Silicon and Related Materials ...................... 995
33.5 Lubrication Studies for MEMS/NEMS ............................................... 1003
33.6 Component-Level Studies ............................................................. 1009
References.............................................................................................. 1017
34 Mechanical Properties of Micromachined Structures ....................... 1023
34.1 Measuring Mechanical Properties of Films on Substrates ................ 1023
34.2 Micromachined Structures for Measuring Mechanical Properties ..... 1024
34.3 Measurements of Mechanical Properties ........................................ 1034
References.............................................................................................. 1037
35 Thermo- and Electromechanics of Thin-Film Microstructures ........ 1039
35.1 Thermomechanics of Multilayer Thin-Film Microstructures ............. 1041
35.2 Electromechanics of Thin-Film Microstructures .............................. 1061
35.3 Summary and Mention of Topics not Covered................................. 1078
References.............................................................................................. 1078
36 High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability
of MEMS Products ................................................................................ 1083
36.1 Manufacturing Strategy ................................................................ 1086
36.2 Robust Manufacturing .................................................................. 1087
36.3 Stable Field Performance .............................................................. 1102
References.............................................................................................. 1106

37 MEMS Packaging and Thermal Issues in Reliability .......................... 1111
37.1 MEMS Packaging ........................................................................... 1111
37.2 Hermetic and Vacuum Packaging and Applications ........................ 1116
37.3 Thermal Issues and Packaging Reliability....................................... 1122
37.4 Future Trends and Summary ......................................................... 1128
References.............................................................................................. 1129
Part F Social and Ethical Implication
38 Social and Ethical Implications of Nanotechnology ......................... 1135
38.1 Applications and Societal Impacts ................................................. 1136
38.2 Technological Convergence ........................................................... 1139
38.3 Major Socio-technical Trends ........................................................ 1141
38.4 Sources of Ethical Behavior ........................................................... 1143
38.5 Public Opinion ............................................................................. 1145
38.6 A Research Agenda ....................................................................... 1148
References.............................................................................................. 1149

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